Middle East

EU mulls lifting sanctions for rebel areas

Displaced Syrian women in the Azaz camp north of Aleppo province in Syria.

BRUSSELS: European governments might ease economic sanctions on rebel-held areas of Syria, including a ban on importing oil, in an effort to tilt the balance of the conflict against President Bashar Assad.

Germany has proposed that sanctions be reviewed, and possibly lifted, in coming months in territory under opposition control. That might allow European Union states to resume trade there and create sources of cash for the opposition, EU diplomats said Thursday.

Such a move would mark a significant step up in European support for the rebels, locked in a 23-month conflict that has killed about 70,000 people, and could allow them to build up local governance and obtain humanitarian aid.

“In the areas where the opposition holds control, it is important to give them more stability as far as their economic situation is concerned,” said one EU diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity.

No detailed discussions have been held among EU officials on the issue yet, but two other diplomats said there were no substantial objections for now and that more talks would be scheduled starting in March.

Current EU sanctions on Syria include a ban on Syrian oil imports to Europe – a significant source of revenue for Assad – as well as an arms embargo and prohibitions on investment in the energy sector.

Lifting some restrictions could allow opposition groups to start selling oil to Europe, the main buyer of Syrian crude before sanctions were put in place in September 2011.

Earlier in February, rebels seized the town of al-Shaddadeh in an eastern oil-producing province of Syria after three days of heavy fighting.

The Hasakah province, an ethnically mixed area of Arabs and Kurds, accounts for most of Syria’s oil output, which is estimated to have fallen by a third to no more than 100,000 barrels per day since the uprising against Assad’s rule erupted in March 2011.

Rebels also hold territory in rural northern Syria, where they control border crossings with Turkey.

European governments have held back from giving direct aid to the opposition or granting full recognition to the Syria National Coalition, largely because of concerns over the presence of radical Islamists among the rebels and accusations by U.N. investigators of war crimes committed by rebel fighters.

Earlier this week, the EU took steps to provide more help, potentially including security advice to rebel groups, following a push by Britain to ease the arms embargo to supply the opposition.

Other EU governments have so far rejected the idea of allowing arms shipments to anti-Assad groups, but easing oil sanctions could offer them the financial means to buy weapons elsewhere.

“It’s not that we are supporting the opposition,” said one EU diplomat. “But we [could] give them an opportunity to trade so they can choose what they spend the money on.”

The EU is also a major provider of humanitarian aid to Syria, and has offered more than 300 million euros ($397 million) so far. Accessing rebel territory is particularly difficult and easing trade sanctions could address that.

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on February 22, 2013, on page 8.




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