Middle East

‘War on mosques’ now daily part of Iraq strife

An Iraqi woman who sells milk passes by the scene of a car bomb attack in the Kamaliyah neighborhood, a predominantly Shiite area of eastern Baghdad.

BAGHDAD: A “war on mosques” – deadly attacks by militants on Sunni mosques and Shiite places of worship called husseiniyas – using weapons ranging from bombs to mortar rounds is raging in Iraq.

Dozens of attacks this year have stirred already-simmering sectarian tensions between Iraq’s Sunni minority and Shiite majority, and led some would-be worshippers to stay away.

“There is an increase in the frequency of reciprocal attacks targeting Sunni and Shiite mosques,” political analyst Ihsan al-Shammari told AFP.

“It is a war on mosques.”

Iraqis have lived with near-daily violence since the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of the country that toppled dictator Saddam Hussein, and militants still attack both security forces and civilians almost each day.

Now, they have set their sites on mosques as well.

In one of the deadliest attacks, two bombs exploded near the Sunni Saria mosque in Baqouba, north of Baghdad, after prayers Friday.

One device blew up as worshippers were leaving, and the second went off after people gathered at the scene of the first blast, killing a total of 41 people.

The attacks came after a suicide bomber killed 12 by detonating an explosives-rigged belt Thursday at the entrance to Al-Zahraa husseiniya, where family members were receiving condolences for victims of violence the day before.

Sheikh Sami al-Massudi, deputy head of the Shiite endowment which manages Shiite religious sites in Iraq, said more than 45 mosques and husseiniyas belonging to the endowment had been targeted this year.

And an official from the Sunni endowment said more than 10 mosques had come under attack in the past month alone. “We are threatened, to the point that we did not go to work last Monday after we received threats,” the official said.

It is unclear which group or groups are behind the violence.

Sunni militants are almost certainly behind attacks on Shiite places of worship. But Sunni mosques may be being attacked by either Shiite militants, or by Sunnis punishing worshippers for not adhering to a hard-line interpretation of Islam.

Whoever is behind the bombings, they have certainly had an effect on attendance. “I stopped going to pray after the closure of the mosque near our house because of the attacks,” said Ihsan Ahmad, a 25-year-old Sunni.

A bomb killed the muezzin, who calls people to pray, at the mosque about two weeks ago, Ahmad said. “All this happened in front of my eyes. How can I go again? Even my wife and my children prevent me from going.”

Ali, a 29-year-old Shiite, said that some people have become afraid to go to husseiniyas for prayers as well: “People have become reluctant to go to husseiniyas, but I did not stop.”

Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki Sunday called for joint Shiite-Sunni prayers on Fridays in a major Baghdad mosque. “Those who target mosques are enemies of Sunnis and Shiites alike, and are planning to ignite [sectarian] strife,” he said in a statement.

Tensions are festering between the government of Maliki, a Shiite, and Sunnis who accuse authorities of marginalizing and targeting their community via wrongful detentions and accusations of involvement in terrorism.

Protests broke out in Sunni areas of Iraq almost five months ago.

While the government has made some concessions – freeing prisoners and raising the salaries of Sunni anti-Al-Qaeda fighters – the underlying issues have not been addressed.

On April 23, security forces moved against protesters near the town of Hawijah in Kirkuk province, sparking clashes that killed 53 people.

Dozens more died in subsequent unrest that included revenge attacks on security forces, raising fears of a return to the all-out sectarian conflict that ravaged the country 2006-2008.

The violence has not let up in May, with more than 260 people killed in attacks so far this month.

United Nations envoy Martin Kobler has appealed for Iraqi leaders to bring a halt to the violence, including the attacks on mosques.

“It is the responsibility of all leaders to stop the bloodshed,” Kobler said. “Small children are burned alive in cars. Worshippers are cut down outside their own mosques. This is beyond unacceptable.”

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on May 21, 2013, on page 9.




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