BEIRUT

Middle East

Rebels make their last stand for Homs, capital of the revolution

  • File - A Syrian stands in the rubble of a destroyed buildings from Syrian forces shelling, in the al-Hamidiyyeh neighborhood of Homs province, Syria, June 27, 2013. (AP Photo/Lens Young Homsi)

BEIRUT: Weakened Syrian rebels are making their last desperate stand in Homs, as forces loyal to President Bashar Assad launch their harshest assault yet to expel them from the central city, once known as the capital of the revolution.

Some among the hundreds of rebels remaining in the city talk of surrender, according to opposition activists there. Others have lashed back against the siege with suicide car bombings in districts under government control. Some fighters are turning on comrades they suspect want to desert, pushing them into battle.

“We expect Homs to fall,” said an activist who uses the name Thaer Khalidieh, in an online interview with the Associated Press.

“In the next few days, it could be under the regime’s control.”

The fight for Homs underscores Assad’s determination to rout rebels ahead of presidential election now set for June 3, aiming to scatter fighters back further north toward their supply lines on the Turkish border.

Assad’s forces are building on gains elsewhere. They have been able to almost clear rebels from a broad swath of territory south of Homs between the capital, Damascus, and the Lebanese border, breaking important rebel supply lines there. Rebels have also capitulated in several towns around Damascus amid blockades that caused widespread hunger and suffering.

Homs, Syria’s third-largest city, is a crucial target, linking the capital with Aleppo in the north. But rebels still control large areas of the countryside in the north and south and have consolidated around the Turkish and Jordanian borders.

“A total loss of Homs would represent a serious loss to the opposition,” said Charles Lister, visiting fellow at the Brookings Doha Center.

“The military has maintained a steadily significant focus on Homs precisely due to this importance,” Lister said.

“This has been all been part of a very conscious strategy of encircling, besieging and capturing areas of strategic importance.”

For over a year, government forces have been besieging rebels in the string of districts they hold around the ancient bazaars in the city center.

Just over a week ago, troops loyal to Assad escalated their assaults on rebel districts, barraging them with tank and mortar fire and bombs dropped from military aircraft. Syrian forces have so far advanced into two areas, Wadi al-Sayeh and Bab Houd.

Online video footage showed explosions as projectiles smashed into buildings, sending up columns of white smoke. Angry rebels are heard shouting that they have been abandoned and singing that only God can help them. The footage corresponded with other AP reporting on the events.

Activists said it was the fiercest assault since last summer, when regime troops retook the rebel-held neighborhood of Khaldieh.

The death toll from the fighting is unknown, because neither side reports losses.

Rebels in Homs have been deeply weakened by months of blockade around their strongholds and the loss of supply lines from Lebanon in March, after Syrian forces seized the border town of Zara.

Hundreds of fighters surrendered during a series of U.N.-mediated truces that began in November. An estimated 800-1,000 fighters left alongside hundreds of civilians who were evacuated from rebel-held parts of the city, according to activists and an official in Homs province.

The rebels remaining in the city are predominantly from the Nusra Front, an Al-Qaeda affiliate, and other Islamist factions.

One rebel fighter in the city, who uses the name Abu Bilal, estimated that 1,000 rebels remain.

An activist in Homs, Abu Rami, said rebels wanting to leave had affected the spirits of others struggling under the blockade.

“They tempted them with food and drink, and saying, ‘Don’t you want to see your families?’” he said over Skype from the city.

“[That] really did weaken hundreds of them, and it affected the morale of the rest of the rebels.”

Dozens more fighters are now trying to surrender, according to Abu Rami and Khalidieh. The fighters reached out to contact the governor of Homs, Talal Barazi, and Reconciliation Minister Ali Haidar, who handles such cases.

“We asked the regime if we could surrender and leave for the countryside,” said Khalidieh.

“So far we don’t have a clear answer,” said Abu Rami, who is opposed to leaving but is helping to mediate on behalf of others.

Barazi’s office said there was “absolutely no contact” with gunmen. It was not immediately possible to contact Haidar.

Some rebels have escalated suicide car bombings in government-controlled areas dominated by Alawites. In April alone, at least five such attacks killed more than 60 people, one of the bloodiest months for residents, a local reporter there estimated. The most recent killed 14 people Friday.

“We are killing them, those rotting carcasses,” said Abu Bilal.

The bombings have another aim, he said, claiming that they could spark further fighting and prevent any truce that would allow rebels to desert, Abu Bilal said.

“Some of us are against those deserting. We are fighting so they can die in it,” said Abu Bilal.

Homs’ saga traces the arc of Syria’s uprising.

It quickly embraced the uprising against Assad’s rule after it began in Deraa province in March 2011. Tens of thousands joined anti-Assad protests in Homs, winning it the nickname of “the revolution’s capital.”

“We carried the spark of the revolution and made it a flame,” Abu Rami said.

After pro-Assad forces violently cracked down on demonstrations, some protesters took up arms, transforming the uprising into an armed rebellion.

Most recently, on April 7, a masked gunman killed a widely respected elderly Dutch priest, Jesuit Father Francis Van Der Lugt, who lived in a monastery in a rebel-held district, choosing to live alongside civilians who were unable to leave.

Khalidieh said fighters had to be saved now that Homs was lost.

“We are more scared that the regime will kill everybody than we are worried about the fall of Homs,” he said.

But Abu Rami said he would rather die.

“If they come, then we are all going to be martyrs,” he said.

“We can lose an area, and we can regain it. But the most important thing is not to kneel.”

 
A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on April 23, 2014, on page 8.
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Summary

Weakened Syrian rebels are making their last desperate stand in Homs, as forces loyal to President Bashar Assad launch their harshest assault yet to expel them from the central city, once known as the capital of the revolution.

Assad's forces are building on gains elsewhere. They have been able to almost clear rebels from a broad swath of territory south of Homs between the capital, Damascus, and the Lebanese border, breaking important rebel supply lines there.

Rebels in Homs have been deeply weakened by months of blockade around their strongholds and the loss of supply lines from Lebanon in March, after Syrian forces seized the border town of Zara.

One rebel fighter in the city, who uses the name Abu Bilal, estimated that 1,000 rebels remain.

An activist in Homs, Abu Rami, said rebels wanting to leave had affected the spirits of others struggling under the blockade.

Khalidieh said fighters had to be saved now that Homs was lost.


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