Middle East

Rebels in Homs fight for a shattered dream

File - A Syrian flag flutters outside a military barrack in the devastated Baba Amr neighbourhood of the central restive city of Homs on May 2, 2012.(AFP PHOTO/JOSEPH EID)

BEIRUT: Once hailed as the heroes of Syria’s revolution, Homs’ besieged, starved and abandoned rebels are now defending a shattered enclave, fearing their uprising will die if they are defeated.

Homs was dubbed “the capital of the revolution” against President Bashar Assad after the uprising began exactly three years ago, when it was the scene of peaceful mass rallies and sit-ins.

But the regime struck back with a brutal crackdown, jailing thousands, opening fire on demonstrations and eventually pushing the country into a full-scale war, with troops shelling rebel neighborhoods for weeks or months at a time.

Small pockets of rebels in Homs fear they could be driven out of the strategic city, with regime forces tightening a 20-month siege and advancing elsewhere in the country.

“What we fear is the regime taking control of what remains of the besieged areas,” said Thaer, a 25-year-old activist and former jeweler from the Khaldieh neighborhood, once a bastion of the revolt but now under army control.

“If that happens the revolution will end, and we will have to forget about our families returning to our neighborhoods,” he said.

“The regime will be able, without much difficulty, to take control of the rest of Syria.”

The districts around the demolished Old City where rebels are making what could be their last stand are scenes of utter devastation, with streets flooded with rubble coursing past hollowed-out apartment blocs.

But the rebels still view the city as the symbolic heart of the revolution, and are determined not to let the regime reap a propaganda victory.

“The revolutionaries are not defending rubble, they are defending what Homs represents,” says Abul-Hareth, a local sheikh.

Until a weeklong, U.N.-supervised humanitarian operation in February that saw some 1,400 people evacuated and the distribution of some aid, no food or medicine had entered since June 2012, forcing people to survive on little more than herbs.

Some 1,500 people still trapped inside face the choice of abandoning their neighborhoods or resisting to the death. Thaer says the besieged include 100 wounded people “with no medicine.”

The rebels also face tough choices, after seeing the uprising’s early unity disintegrate, as some factions took orders from different foreign patrons and armed gangs exploited the chaos.

“If I stay on the front line, I am also maintaining those who have turned the revolution into a business,” said Diaa Abu Jihad, a 24-year-old electrician-turned-fighter. “But if I abandon it, I betray the friends who gave their lives to stop the army from taking the whole of Homs.”

Activists reminisce about the start of the revolt in 2011 as a time of spontaneous, peaceful action led by young people, as well a regime onslaught in February 2012 against the Bab Amr neighborhood, which killed hundreds of people and hastened the militarization of the uprising.

“A real revolutionary runs away from the house, goes to fight the enemy, and comes back at the end of the night. He sees his mother, eats something and runs away again before the crack of dawn,” Yazan, a 29-year-old activist, told AFP via the Internet.

“What happened here was the opposite,” as residential neighborhoods were transformed into war zones.

As the rebels took up arms out of desperation, more sinister elements did as well.

“People who were known to be thugs could suddenly claim to be battalion leaders,” Yazan said.

Activist Abu Fahmi, who volunteers in a barren field hospital, said there has been talk of a truce, similar to those reached in districts around Damascus in recent weeks, but without “any concrete result.”

A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on March 13, 2014, on page 8.




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