Middle East

Syria’s Druze reject Assad’s call to serve in military

Syrian President Bashar Assad receives a group of former Druze hostages in Damascus, Nov. 13, 2018. (The Daily Star/SANA, HO)

BEIRUT: Nearly eight years into the Syrian war, Selim still refuses to perform his military service, just like many fellow Druze from Swaida province rejecting the regime’s conscription call. “I don’t want to get involved in the Syrian bloodbath,” said the 27-year-old, who gave a pseudonym for fear of reprisals.

The Swaida region south of Damascus is the Syrian heartland of the country’s Druze minority which follows a secretive offshoot of Islam.

After the anti-regime protests that sparked Syria’s war in 2011, the Druze obtained a de facto exemption from military service in exchange for their tacit support of the regime.

Last week however, President Bashar Assad urged the minority, which accounted for around three percent of Syria’s prewar population, to send its young men to the army.

After rotating out some very long-serving conscripts, the regime is looking for fresh blood to beef up its ranks and exercise real control over the swathes of land it recaptured from insurgents and militants.

Assad’s appeal came after the government earlier this month helped release a large group of Druze civilians who had been taken hostage by Daesh (ISIS) in Swaida.

His call appeared to end a deal whereby the Druze were allowed to organize their own militia rather than serve in the army, but its implementation could prove tricky.

“I don’t want to have to kill the people of Hama, the people of Homs or any other province, for the sake of keeping one man in power,” Selim told AFP by phone from Swaida.

“The army is your grave,” said the young man, explaining that the lack of a time limit on conscription during war means recruits will not be able to know when they can return home.

To be on the safe side, Selim never leaves Swaida, a province in southern Syria that borders Jordan and where the Syrian security services have a limited presence.

Young Druze men have in recent years enlisted in local militia to protect their region from Islamist militants and the regime’s interests.

In July, Selim was among hundreds of other residents who took up arms to pin back Daesh after a series of attacks that left at least 260 people dead. During the assault, the deadliest to have hit the Druze community since the start of the war, the militants kidnapped about 30 people, mainly women and children.

The last of the surviving hostages were released on Nov. 8, leading to Assad’s demand that the Druze contribute to the national war effort.

“The regime is trying to tell us: It’s Daesh or the military service,” Selim said.

Khattar Abu Diab, a Paris-based professor of political science and a specialist in Druze affairs, said Assad was attempting to intimidate the minority. “He wants to use the residents of Swaida as cannon fodder for future battles,” he said.

Swaida was mostly spared by the deadly Syrian conflict and only faced sporadic militant attacks they managed to repel.

Residents on several occasions in 2014 besieged detention centers to obtain the release of men who had been rounded up to join the army.

At the time the central government was at its weakest, stretched very thin on many fronts and had humored the Druze not to risk opening up another.

That level of autonomy now comes at a cost for Swaida, where security is all but guaranteed by the presence of the Syrian police.

Some residents see a deliberate government effort to maintain a level of chaos in the province.

“The regime uses other means to punish Swaida: Daesh instead of barrel bombs, crime and disorder instead of arrests,” activist Hamam al-Khatib said.

According to the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights activist group, around 30,000 Druze men are liable for military service.

The group’s head, Rami Abdel-Rahman, alleged the government told Druze leaders it would remove the Daesh threat if they promise to support the conscription drive.

Daesh militants who had been holding out in the volcanic area of Tulul al-Safa, between Damascus and Swaida, finally retreated last week after heavy regime bombardment and a government-negotiated deal. Regardless of the deals being cut in Damascus and by their leaders, Druze youngsters willing to serve in the army are hard to come by.

“The war just keeps going on ... we are not killing machines,” said Uday al-Khatib, a 25-year-old Swaida resident.

“Yes, the Swaida youth don’t do military service, I’m one of them, but we are the ones who pushed back Daesh and the army didn’t help us,” he told AFP in a phone interview.

 
A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on November 22, 2018, on page 7.

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