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One person commits suicide every 40 seconds

Dozens of padlocks around cables are seen along the bridge of the Americas in La Paz September 2, 2014.REUTERS/David Mercado

GENEVA: One person commits suicide somewhere in the world every 40 seconds, the United Nations said in a report Thursday. In its first report on suicide, the U.N.’s World Health Organization said that intense media coverage when celebrities kill themselves fueled the problem.

“Suicide is an amazing public health problem. There is one suicide every 40 seconds – it is a huge number,” said Shekhar Saxena, the director of the WHO’s mental health department, at the presentation of the report in Geneva.

“Suicide kills more than conflicts, wars and natural catastrophes,” he said. “There are 1.5 million violent deaths every year in the world, of which 800,000 are suicides.”

The highest rates of suicide are found in central and eastern Europe and in Asia, and 25 percent occur in rich countries, the report says.

Men are almost twice as likely as women to take their own lives. Common methods are hanging, gunshots, and, especially in rural areas, the use of poisonous insecticides.

“Globally, suicide rates are highest in people aged 70 years and over. In some countries, however, the highest rates are found among the young,” WHO said. “Notably, suicide is the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year-olds globally.”

Alexandra Fleischmann, one of the report’s co-authors, said part of the blame lay with the publicity given to suicides of famous people, such as Hollywood actor Robin Williams, who killed himself recently.

The Oscar-winning star, who had suffered from depression, was found dead at his home on Aug. 1, prompting an outpouring of emotion from the public and widespread media coverage.

Ella Arensman, president of the International Association for Suicide Prevention, said that after news broke of Williams’ death she received “five emails of people who had recovered [from a] suicide crisis and saying that they are thinking again about suicide.”

“These overwhelming reports can have a contagion effect on vulnerable people,” she said. She also mentioned the “sharp increase” in suicides after German football player Robert Enke killed himself in 2009.

“Suicide should not be glamorized or sensationalized,” Fleischmann said, urging news outlets not to mention suicide as the cause of death at the start of reports, but only at the end, “with a mention of where [the reader] can find help.”

The WHO, which called suicide a problem that must be confronted and stemmed, studied 172 countries to produce the report, which took a decade to research.

It said that in 2012 high-income countries had a slightly higher suicide rate – 12.7 per 100,000 people, versus 11.2 in low- and middle-income nations.

But given the latter category’s far higher population, they accounted for roughly three-quarters of the global total.

Suicides in Southeast Asia, including North Korea, India, Indonesia and Nepal, accounted for more than a third of the annual figure.

The WHO cautioned that suicide figures were often incomplete, as many countries failed to keep proper tallies.

In addition, “there are many suicide attempts for each death,” WHO chief Margaret Chan said.

“The impact on families, friends and communities is devastating and far-reaching, even long after persons dear to them have taken their own lives,” she added.

Suicide and attempted suicide are considered a crime in 25 countries around the world, mostly in Africa, South America and Asia.

The most suicide-prone countries were Guyana (44.2 per 100,000), followed by North and South Korea (38.5 and 28.9 respectively).

Next came Sri Lanka (28.8), Lithuania (28.2), Suriname (27.8), Mozambique (27.4), Nepal and Tanzania (24.9 each), Burundi (23.1), India (21.1), and South Sudan (19.8). Next were Russia and Uganda (both with 19.5), Hungary (19.1), Japan (18.5), and Belarus (18.3).

The U.N. agency said its goal was to cut national suicide rates by 10 percent by 2020.

A major challenge, it said, is that suicide victims are often from marginalized groups of the population, many of them poor and vulnerable.

However, “suicides are preventable,” Chan said.

 
A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Daily Star on September 05, 2014, on page 8.

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Summary

One person commits suicide somewhere in the world every 40 seconds, the United Nations said in a report Thursday.

The highest rates of suicide are found in central and eastern Europe and in Asia, and 25 percent occur in rich countries, the report says.

The WHO, which called suicide a problem that must be confronted and stemmed, studied 172 countries to produce the report, which took a decade to research.

It said that in 2012 high-income countries had a slightly higher suicide rate – 12.7 per 100,000 people, versus 11.2 in low- and middle-income nations.

The WHO cautioned that suicide figures were often incomplete, as many countries failed to keep proper tallies.

A major challenge, it said, is that suicide victims are often from marginalized groups of the population, many of them poor and vulnerable.


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