File - In this Sunday, July 17, 2016 file photo, a French flag stands stall amongst a floral tribute for the victims killed during a deadly attack, on the famed Boulevard des Anglais in Nice, southern France. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
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After a series of deadly attacks that shocked Europe in recent weeks, anti-Islam sentiment has once again returned to the fore of the continent's politics, even while the number of Islamophobic incidents in France remains limited.Hafez is the editor of the European Islamophobia Report, which was published earlier this year. The real problem of Islamophobia in Europe, Hafez explained, is not just about prejudices toward religious communities, but a power project building on the idea of the clash between the West and Islam.Marwan Muhammad of the Collective Against Islamophobia in France (known by its French initialization CCIF) agrees that Islamophobia on a governmental level is becoming a serious threat. According to Muhammad, of the 3,500 families which have been raided since last November, 90 percent were Muslim, and only 6 cases were followed by a persecution.According to CCIF, France experienced in total five times as many Islamophobic attacks in 2015 than the year before.The attitude Muhammad described does not represent the situation throughout Europe, Hafez added.It was difficult for Hafez to say whether the general attitude toward Muslims changed because there is no professional institution such as the CCIF active in Germany to report Islamophobia.
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