In 1966, French President Charles de Gaulle’s vision of a Europe “that stretched from the Atlantic to the Urals” was provocative. Today, Russian President Vladimir Putin has advanced an even more ambitious goal: “a common market stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific.”
In the race toward globalization, the stakes are high for both Russia and Europe. If Russia continues on its current path toward becoming solely a raw-materials producer, it will not only become increasingly vulnerable to global energy-price fluctuations, but its scientific, cultural and educational potential will decay further, eventually stripping the country of its global clout.
If Europe, for its part, fails to respond to the challenges of the 21st century, it will face chronic economic stagnation, rising social tension, and political instability. Indeed, as industrial production migrates to East Asia and innovation remains in North America, Europe risks losing its position in the most attractive international markets. As a result, the European project itself could be called into question.
In order to avoid these outcomes, Russia and Europe must identify where their interests converge, and then work to establish a mutually beneficial partnership in those areas. But, in order to foster such a partnership, they must first alter their negative perceptions that each has of the other.
Many Russians do not regard Europe as a political and economic partner, or even as an ally. In their view, Europe has already lost the battle for innovation and economic development, and is gradually becoming an “industrial museum.” Russia, they argue, should form partnerships with countries that are more dynamic.
Likewise, many Europeans believe that, while a partnership with Russia might be an asset now, it would corrode Europe’s economies and politics in the long run. If Europe wants to lead and prosper, according to this view, it should limit its ties with Russia as much as possible.
Ongoing disputes between Russia and the European Union reflect this mutual distrust. Russians accuse Europeans of taking too long to liberalize visas, in that way blocking Russian energy companies’ access to Europe’s downstream markets, instigating anti-Russian sentiment in the post–Soviet era and trying to interfere in Russia’s domestic politics.
Meanwhile, Europeans have serious reservations about Russia’s human-rights record, legal system, failure to adhere to European values and position on international crises – especially in the Middle East. As a result, the prospect of closer cooperation remains distant.
Without a fundamental reset, relations between Russia and Europe will continue to decay, until they eventually become characterized by benign neglect. Despite their common geography, history, and economic interests, Russia’s and Europe’s strategic trajectories will diverge.
An alternative scenario relies on the powerful unifying impact of human capital, the defining factor in the quest for global influence. Human capital – not natural resources, production capacity, or financial reserves – should constitute the foundation of Russian and European development policies.
Cultivating human capital requires a supportive cultural environment, a well-developed educational system, and research and innovation centers. Many argue that, in both Russia and Europe, such social infrastructure has become so costly that it is hindering the development of a more efficient and dynamic economy. Only by dismantling the welfare state, critics contend, can progress be made.
But curtailing social programs in both Europe and Russia would jeopardize human capital, the most valuable comparative advantage in both places.
By enhancing the welfare state’s efficiency, economic progress can occur without sacrificing this crucial source of long-term growth.
Given their strong traditions of building human capital – and their motivation to continue to do so – Russia and Europe have much to offer one another. By focusing on the areas in which their modernization agendas overlap – from education to public health to environmental protection – they can identify ways to increase the efficiency of their human capital.
While Europeans have reason to criticize Russia’s shortcomings, they should also recognize that only two decades ago, Russia’s political, economic, social and legal systems underwent a fundamental shift, which significantly affected its people’s psychology, self-perception and behavior.
Given the complicated experience of the Europeans with the enlargement of the EU, they should understand the challenges that accompany such a profound change.
With this understanding should come recognition that Europe’s current policy of demanding that Russia “mature” as a condition for cooperation is counterproductive. Russia will mature much more slowly in isolation than it will if it is integrated into the institutions of the European Union.
Some progress has already been made. For example, participating in the Council of Europe has helped Russia to improve significantly its prison system. Likewise, launching initial public offerings on European stock exchanges has strengthened Russian corporations’ governance, social responsibility and treatment of minority shareholders. In short, more interaction, not less, should be actively encouraged.
Of course, Russia will probably not become a full NATO member in the foreseeable future, owing to the many structural, technical, and psychological obstacles blocking its path. But political integration is feasible. Greater political cooperation would provide a context for discussing issues like the future of Afghanistan, international terrorism, and nuclear proliferation, as well as for creating joint initiatives and strategies that address crucial issues affecting both powers.
The institutional integration of Russia into greater Europe will require strong commitment from both sides. But, in this globalized century, it is the only option.
Igor S. Ivanov, Russia’s former foreign minister, is the president of the Russian International Affairs Council. THE DAILY STAR publishes this commentary in collaboration with Project Syndicate © www.project-syndicate.org