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Asia's future is inextricably tied to the Himalayas, the world's tallest mountain range and the source of the water-stressed continent's major river systems.Five rivers originating on the Great Himalayan Massif – the Yangtze, the Indus, the Mekong, the Salween and the Ganges – rank among the world's 10 most endangered rivers.China's re-engineering of natural river flows through damming – one-fifth of the country's rivers now have less water flowing through them each year than is diverted to reservoirs – has already degraded riparian ecosystems and caused 350 large lakes to disappear. With these water-diverting projects increasingly focused on international, rather than internal, rivers – in particular those in the Tibetan Plateau, which covers nearly three-quarters of the Himalayan glacier area – the environmental threat extends far beyond China's borders.Already, copper mine tailings are polluting waters in a Himalayan region sacred to Tibetans, which they call Pemako ("Hidden Lotus Land"), where the world's highest-altitude major river, the Brahmaputra (Yarlung Tsangpo to Tibetans), curves around the Himalayas before entering India.Halting rampant environmental degradation in the Himalayas is now urgent, and it is possible only through cooperation among all members of the Himalayan basin community, from the lower Mekong River region and China to the countries of southern Asia.
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