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The Naturalization Act of 1790, passed by Congress only three years after the adoption of the Constitution, restricted citizenship to "free white persons" of "good moral character," who have resided in the United States for two years (it was revised in 1795 and 1798 mainly to increase the residency requirement, eventually to 14 years).For the Japanese, a "gentleman's agreement" was informally agreed between the U.S. president and the Japanese government in 1907, which annulled a previous treaty between the two countries that assured the free migration of Japanese to the United States.Thus, from 1790 until 1965, the main purpose of immigration policy after independence was to ensure that the population of the United States remained overwhelmingly white, that is, of Western European stock.While until the 1950s, the proportion of "non-Hispanic White" population never went much below 90 percent of total U.S. population, it has fallen to 60 percent at present.Ethnic projections of the U.S. population by the Pew Research Center indicate that, even if immigration of all other than non-Hispanic whites was cut in half today, the date at which the white population will fall below 50 percent will be postponed by one or two decades at most. The U.S. Bureau of the Census predicts that the percentage of the "non-Hispanic white" population will continue to decline, falling below 50 percent in about 25 years.
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