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countries hosting refugees from these conflicts, the challenges have been acute.Given the scale and duration of MENA's refugee crisis, it is clear that a new approach is needed, one that shifts the focus from temporary to semi-permanent solutions.First, donor countries must do more to strengthen the economies of host states. For example, by buying more exports from host countries or helping to finance health care and education sectors, donors could improve economic conditions for conflict-neighboring states and, in the process, create job opportunities for refugees.For this to pay off, however, host countries will first need to remove restrictions on refugees' ability to work legally. Employment might seem obvious, but most MENA host countries currently bar refugees from holding jobs in the formal sector (Jordan is one exception, having issued some 87,000 work permits to Syrian refugees since 2016). As a result, many refugees are forced to find work in the informal economy, where they can become vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.
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